1) Animals live in various habitats on Earth. Some habitats are very hot while others are very cold.
2) In order to survive, animals living in very hot or cold regions need to protect themselves from extreme climates.
3) Animals develop specific characteristics and behaviours that enable them to live in very hot or cold habitats.
Adaptations of animals to very hot climate
1) Animals like the elephants, hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses and buffaloes lose body heat through their wrinkled skins. The wrinkled skins have a bigger surface area, so more heat can escape from the bodies and help to cool their bodies on hot days. These animals also keep their bodies cool by wallowing in mud holes.
2) Camels are able to survive in extremely hot deserts. Camels have long eyelashes and ear hairs to prevent sand from entering their bodies. Camel store food and water in the form of fats in the humps on their back. This adaptation allows them to go for days without food and water.
3) During the day, most desert animals are not active. They hide under rocks and in holes to keep away from the heat.
Adaptations of animals to very cold climate
1) In cold regions, most animals have thick fur and layers of fat under their skins.
2) Polar bears have thick fur to prevent the body from losing heat to the cold surroundings.
3) Polar bears, penguins, walruses, seals and whales have layers of fats under their skin to keep their bodies warm.
4) Seals and walruses have small ears to prevent heat loss from their bodies.